Professional Identity and Performance Appraisal:Implications for Indian Medical Education

Commentary: Professional Identity and Performance Appraisal: Implications for Indian Medical Education

  • Rashmi Vyas
  • Laura E. Hirshfield
  • Payal Bansal
  • Page S Morahan
Keywords: Professional Identity, Performance Appraisal, Indian Medical Education

Abstract

Teaching professionalism is important in the development of a health professional who is competent and responsive to the needs of the community. More recently, the concept of professionalism has expanded to include supporting students in the development of their professional identity. The purpose of this commentary is to describe the effect of diversity on the formation of professional identity, as well as the role of diversity in the development of a robust performance appraisal system. Considerable research has established that greater diversity in medicine, particularly in terms of gender and race, positively influences professional identity formation. This is because diverse identities bring unique perspectives and skills, exposure to which enhances educational experiences and contributes to identity formation. Issues related to language, communication, attire and impression management can be addressed through this sort of contact. Performance appraisals have been found to be a major source of discrimination in managing diversity and equity in workplace. There are many unconscious biases and assumptions related to identities including gender, race and nationality which need to be addressed in developing a fair and equitable performance appraisal system.Researchers have shown that the first step in combating biases is to increase an awareness of one’s own biases, and then learn skills to deal with them in a way that is fair and non–judgmental. Faculty development programs can address this goal to some extent. While there are several such programs globally, in India there is a need for faculty development programs that address the issue of biases. The existing national faculty development program led by Medical Council of India and the programs by the Foundation for Advancement of International Education and Research (FAIMER) Regional Institutes in India can add inclusion and biases to their programs. [Rashmi VNJIRM 2017; 8(6):106-111]

References

1. Cruess RL, Cruess SR, Boudreau JD, Snell L, Steinert Y. A schematic representation of the professional identity formation and socialization of medical students and residents: a guide for medical educators. Acad Med.2015;90:718-725.
2. Johnson JL, Chauvin S. Professional identity formation in an advanced pharmacy practice experience emphasizing self-authorship. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 2016;80(10)Article 172:1-11.
3. Crossley J, Schmidt PV. The development and evaluation of a professional self identity questionnaire to measure evolving professional self identity in health and social care students. Medical Teacher.2009;31:e603-e607.
4. Vaidyanathan B. Professional socialization in medicine. AMA Journal of Ethics. 2015;17(2):160-166.
5. Frost HD, Regehr G. I am a doctor: negotiating the discourses of standardization and diversity in professional identity construction. Acad Med.2013;88:1570-1577.
6. Price EG, Powe NR, Kern DE, Golden SH, Wand GS, Cooper LA. Improving the diversity climate in academic medicine: faculty perceptions as a catalyst for institutional change. Acad Med.2009;84:95-105.
7. Andriole DA, Jeffe DB, Hageman HL, Ephgrave K, Lypson ML, Mavis B, McDougle L, Roberts NK. Variables associated with full time faculty appointment among contemporary US medical school graduates: Implications for academic medicine work force diversity. Acad Med.2010;85:1250-1257.
8. Establishing a culture of inclusion as a strategy for excellence: a strategic approach, University of Virginal School of Medicine. Accessed on Dec 1st 2017 fromhttps://med.virginia.edu/asp/sample-reading-list/establishing-a-culture-of-inclusion-as-a-strategy-for-excellence/
9. Goffman E. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Double Day, Introduction.
10. Sharma A. Managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Cogent Business and Management.2016;3:1212682. Last accessed on Dec 1st 2017 from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/23311975.2016.1212682?needAccess=true
11. Knight JL, Hebl MR, Foster JB, Mannix LM. Out of role? Out of luck? the influence of race and leadership status on performance appraisals. The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies.2003;9(3):85-93.
12. Carli LL, Eagly AH. Gender, hierarchy and leadership: an introduction. Journal of Social Issues.2001;57(4):629-636.
13. Carnes M, Morrisey C, Geller SE. Women’s health and women’s leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling? Journal of Women’s Health.2008;17(9):1453-1462.
14. Volden C, Wiseman AE, Wittmer DE. The legislative effectiveness of women in congress. Centre for the study of democratic institutions; research concentration: legislative policies and policymaking.2010:1-47. Last accessed on Dec 4th2017 from https://www.vanderbilt.edu/csdi/ research/files/CSDI-WP-04-2010.pdf
15. Glicksman E. Unconscious bias in academic medicine: overcoming the prejudices we don’t know we have. Diversity and Inclusion. AAMC news. Last accessed on Dec 13th 2017 from https://news.aamc.org/diversity/article/unconscious-bias/16. Ross H. Exploring bias in Proven strategies for addressing unconscious bias in the workplace. CDO Insights.2008;2(5):1-20. Last accessed on Dec 4th 2017 from http://www.cookross.com/docs/UnconsciousBias.pdf
17. Karani R, Varpio L, May W, Horsley T, Chenault J, Miller KH, O’Brien B. Commentary: racism and bias in health professions education: how educators, faculty developers, and researchers can make a difference. Acad Med.2017;92:S1-S6.
18. Gender in Medical Education. Last accessed on Dec 19th 2017 from http://gme-cehat.org/Aboutus/Aboutus.aspx
19. Karpinski A, Hilton JL. Attitudes and the implicit association test. Journal of personality and social psychology.2001;81(5)774-788.
Published
2018-02-06
How to Cite
Vyas, R., Hirshfield, L. E., Bansal, P., & Morahan, P. S. (2018). Professional Identity and Performance Appraisal:Implications for Indian Medical Education: Commentary: Professional Identity and Performance Appraisal: Implications for Indian Medical Education. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 8(6), 106-111. Retrieved from http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/1346
Section
Other