Clinical and Etiological Profile of the Patients Presenting With Pleural Effusion

Clinical and Etiological Profile of the Patients Presenting With Pleural Effusion

  • Amit Kumar
  • Rajesh Agrawal
  • Vijayesh Kumar Tiwari
  • Ankit Khurana
  • Javed Khan
  • Nadeem Akbar
Keywords: Pleural effusion, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia


Background: Pleural effusion is an abnormal collection of fluid in the pleural space between the visceral and the parietal pleura and results most imminently due to an underlying infection like pneumonia, tuberculosis etc .Objective: To study the clinical and etiological profile of pleural effusion in patients admitted at a tertiary care centre. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 350 cases with age more than 16 years, who were the suspected cases of pleural effusion and the cases with evidence of pleural effusion on the X-ray, CT scan , USG presented to the OPD/ IPD, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital (RMCH), Bareilly from July 2013 to September 2014 were included in the study. Results: out of 350 patients enrolled in the study, 234 (67.14%) belonged to age group of 16-30 years. 247 (70.57%) were male and 103 (29.42%) were female. Tubercular effusion is the commonest cause of unilateral pleural effusion followed by parapneumonic effusion and congestive heart failure is the commonest cause of bilateral pleural effusion. Conclusion: The study concludes that the most common cause of the unilateral pleural effusion was the tuberculosis in 204 (58%) followed by the pneumonia in 88 (25%).Breathlessness followed by the chest pain were the most common clinical symptoms. The most common etiology of the bilateral pleural effusion is transudative. [Amit K NJIRM 2017; 8(2):126-129]


1. Broaddus VC, Wiener-Kronish JP, Staub NC. Clearance of lung edema into the pleural space of volume-loaded anesthetized sheep. J Appl Physiol. 1990; 68(6):2623-2630.
2. Smith MJ, Joseph J, Flatman WD, et al. A dual-isotope method for studying protein kinetics in pleural effusions in humans. Nucl Med Commun. 1992; 13:432-439.
3. Leckie WJ, Tothill P. Albumin turnover in pleural effusions. Clin sci. 1965;29:339-352.
4. Chetty KG. Transudative pleural effusions. Clin Chest Med.1985; 6: 49–54.
5. Light RW. Diagnostic principles in pleural disease. Eur Respir J.1997; 10:476–81.
6. Storey DD, Dines DE, Coles DT. Pleural effusion: a diagnostic dilemma. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1976;236:2183–6.
7. Gannels JJ. Perplexing pleural effusion. Chest. 1978;47:390–3.
8. Keshmiri M, Hashemzadeh M. Use of cholesterol in differentiating of exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1997; 2:187–9.
9. Kalaajieh WK. Etiology of exudative pleural effusion in adults in north Lebanon. Canadian respiratory journal. 2001; 8:93–7.
10. Liam CK, Lim KH, Wong CM. Causes of pleural exudates in a region with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Respirology. 2000; 5:33–8.
11. Light RW. Clinical practice. Pleural effusion. 1. New England Journal of Medicine, 2002, 346:1971–1977.
12. Marel M et al. The incidence of pleural effusion in a well-defined region. Epidemiologic study in central Bohemia. Chest, 1993, 104:1486–1489.
13. Afful B et al. The characteristics and causes of pleural effusions in Kumasi Ghana—a prospective study. Tropical Doctor, 2008, 38:219–220.
14. Koffi N et al. Etiologies of pleurisies in African milieu. Experience of the Cocody Pneumology department. Revue de Pneumologie Clinique, 1997, 53:193–196.
15. al-Qorain A et al. Pattern of pleural effusion in Eastern Province 5. of Saudi Arabia: a prospective study. East African Medical Journal, 1994, 71:246–249.
16. Al-Alusi F. Pleural effusion in Iraq: a prospective study of 100 6. cases. Thorax, 1986, 41:492–493.
17. Khan FY, Alsamawi M, Yasin M, Ibrahim AS, Hamza M, Lingawi M et al. Etiology of pleural effusion among adults in the state of Qata: a 1 year hospital based study. East Med Health J, 2011(EMHS);17:611-618.
18. Valdes LV, Alvarez D, Valle TM, Pose A, Jose ES. The etiology of pleural effusion in an area of with high incidence of pleural effusion.Chest 1996;109:158-62.
19. Dhital K. R., Acharya R., Bhandari R., Kharel P., Giri K. P. and Tamralear R., “Clinical Profile of Patients with Pleural Effusion Admitted to KMCTH,” Kathmandu Uni- versity Medical Journal (KUMJ), 2009 ;Vol. 7, No. 28, , pp. 438-444.
20. Ogunleye ED, Thomas MO, Olusoji OO. Etiology and demographic attributes of common pleural collections in an African population. Surgical Sciences.2013;4:332-338.
21. Lalaine E, Mattison, Lynn, John and Stephen. Pleural effusion in medical ICU- prevalence, causes and clinical implications. Chest ;1997;111:1018-1023.
22. Villena V, Lopez E, Echave S, Alvarez MC, Martin E. Prospective study of 1000 consecutive patients with pleural effusion. Etiology of the effusion and characteristics of the patients. Arch Bronconeumol. 2002; 38:21-6.
How to Cite
Kumar, A., Agrawal, R., Tiwari, V. K., Khurana, A., Khan, J., & Akbar, N. (2018). Clinical and Etiological Profile of the Patients Presenting With Pleural Effusion: Clinical and Etiological Profile of the Patients Presenting With Pleural Effusion. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 8(2), 126-129. Retrieved from
Original Articles