National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm <p>This is an official publication of&nbsp;<strong>"</strong><strong>Association of Health Professionals and Health Educators".&nbsp;</strong> National Journal of&nbsp; Integrated Research in Medicine&nbsp; will publish article of research in various type of therapy for the benefit of mankind i.e. allopathy, ayurvedic, Homeopathy, Sujok therapy, Unani and Siddha Medicine. All the Content of Journal are Open Access and <strong>can be accessed by all without login or payment . We follow Creative Commons license CC BY-NC-SA for access of article.</strong></p> Association of Health Professionals and Health Educators en-US National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine 2230-9969 Umbilical Cord Clamping Timing At Birth By Obstetricians: A Cohort Study http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2849 <p>Background: Delayed umbilical cord clamping is associated with significant benefits to preterm and term new-borns and is recommended for all the infants by the World Health Organization. Little is known about the cord management practices among the obstetricians. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe current cord clamping practices. Material And Methods: A cross-sectional physical survey was sent to 278 Obstetricians and gynaecologists. Umbilical cord practices were assessed, and the barriers related to delaying cord clamping were examined. Result: The overall response rate was 50%. 100 percent of respondents reported delayed cord clamping (DCC) one minute or more after the vaginal births and Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) during term birth. In preterm birth, after vaginal births 65%, and in LSCS birth 43% practitioners waited at least 30 seconds before clamping the cord. Additional analysis revealed that need for neonatal resuscitation and risk of neonatal hypothermia were clinical barriers to DCC. Conclusion: In this study, most respondents reported delaying cord clamping. Neonatal resuscitation, risk of neonatal hypothermia and absence of written protocols were identified as major barriers for DCC. Future studies should focus on developing strategies to implement intact cord neonatal resuscitation. [Sai K Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):01-04]</p> Dr. Saikiran Deshabhotla Dr. Himaja.P Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 01 04 Study The Level Of Hs-Crp With Risk Factors Like Smoking, Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2850 <p>Background: With the turn of the century, CVDs have become the leading cause of mortality in India. Objectives: To correlate the level of Hs-crp with risk factors smoking, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Material &amp; Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on patients admitted in the Intensive cardiac Care Unit of Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli between November 2015 – January 2017. A total number of 110 patients were recruited for the study. Results: Out of the total 110 cases 78(70.9%) were male patients and 32(29.1%) female patients. Most of patients were in age group of 51-60 yrs (40%). In the study 18.2% had HTN, 22.7% had DM, 84.5% were smoking and consuming tobacco, 80% were consuming tobacco and 35.5% were alcoholics. In the study there was no significant association between hsCRP and Age, HTN, DM, Smoking, Alcohol and BMI. Hence the above mentioned factors were not affecting HSCRP. Conclusion: HSCRP can be included as one of the risk factor for CVD assessment and it can be used as screening in high risk individual for CVD assessment, which helps in primary prevention. [Rathod V Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):05-09]</p> Dr. Vikram Rathod Dr. Shiva Prasada T Dr. Jagdeesh B S Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 05 09 Comparison Of Efficacy Of Cell Block Versus Conventional Smear Cytology Study In Serous Effusions http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2851 <p>Background: Diagnostic cytology is study of cells that are exfoliated from epithelial surface or remove from the tissue. Cytological examination of body fluid helps us to differentiate inflammatory effusion from malignant effusion. It has diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. The method has disadvantage of lower sensitivity to detected and differentiate malignant cell from reactive atypical mesothelial cells. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the cytological features of conventional smear (CS) method and cell block (CB) method in serous effusions and access their ability to diagnose malignancy.<br>Material And Methods: Nighty seven serous effusion (pleural and peritoneal) samples were subjected to evaluation by both CS and CB methods.. Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts, Cs and CB prepared. Cell blocks were prepared using plasma-thromboplastin cell block technique. Cellularity, architecture patterns, morphological features and yield for malignancy were compared, using the two methods. Result: Among 97 cases common age was 41-60 year with M:F sex ratio 1.06:1. Most common cause of effusion were Pulmonary tuberculosis (20.69%) followed by Ovarian mass (19.59%), Liver cirrhosis (6.19%), Lung mass (5.15%).Cell block was diagnostically superior (Score 6-8) in 34.02% cases whereas no cases were found diagnostically superior with conventional smear. The additional yield of malignancy was found to be 11.94% more by cell block method compared to conventional smear. Conclusion: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. [Dehariya C Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):10-14]</p> Dr. Dehariya C Dr. Patidar R K Dr. Yadav B S Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 10 14 Electrocardiographic Findings and Its Comparison With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Severity In Patients: A Prospective Study http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2852 <p>Background: Electrocardiographic evaluation is an important tool for assessing the cardiac abnormalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the electrocardiographic findings in patients with COPD and distribute them based on COPD severity. Material and Methods: Hundred COPD patients confirmed using clinical, radiology of chest, and pulmonary function test were studied in the Department of Medicine, BRD Medical College, Gorakhpur from February 2017 to July 2018. Patients were divided based on severity of COPD based on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) values in to mild (60-79), moderate (40-59) and severe (&lt;40). Two-dimension trans-thoracic Doppler and M-mode echocardiography was performed and findings were compared with the severity of the COPD. Result: Majority were males (87%). Mean age of study cohort was 61.45±11.27 years. COPD was more prevalent in patients who were in fifth to seventh decade of their age. Mean FEV1 was 36.78 ± 11.56 % of predicted. Majority of the patients had severe COPD (65%). Most common symptoms for COPD was breathlessness (100%) followed by cough with sputum (96%). In echocardiographic evaluation majority had pulmonary hypertension (62%), 58% had corpulmonale 52% had right ventricular dilatation and 34% right ventricular hypertrophy. Among the patients with mild COPD, only 2 patients had evidence of pulmonary hypertension. Among the patients with moderate COPD, 31% patients had echocardiography evidence of pulmonary hypertension, 28% had evidence of corpulmonale whereas in severe COPD group75% had pulmonary hypertension and 82% had echocardiographic evidence of corpulmonale. Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, corpulmonale, left ventricular dysfunction complicating COPD, more so with more severe COPD. We recommend screening of all COPD patients for cardiac complications. [Shahi R Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):15-18]</p> Dr. Rakesh Kumar Shahi Dr. Rajendra Rai Dr. P Nigam Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 15 18 Effects Of Gym Workout On Pulmonary Function Tests In Healthy Adults http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2853 <p>Background: Physical and mental fitness are closely associated with quality of life and healthy lifestyle. Adequate amount of physical and mental fitness can be achieved by proper amount of physical activity. Due to Urbanization, sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are increasing day by day. Exercise is the most important ailment that can be used to achieve health excellence. This study was done to elicit effect of gym workout on pulmonary function tests in healthy adults. Material And Methods: The present comparative study included 100 healthy individuals who newly joined gym and were willing to participate in the study and it was conducted at Life fitness, Ahmedabad. Age group of study participants was between 20-35 years. The same healthy adults were chosen as cases and controls to decrease biases and confounding factors. Pulmonary function tests were done by Spiro excel digital spirometer of Medicaid systems. Parameters like FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and PEFR were measured. Result: The study results revealed that pulmonary functions of healthy individuals who regularly did gym workout for 1 hour for 5 days a week for at least 3 months were improved. Better lung volumes, capacities and flow rates were achieved at the end of 3 months of workout period than it was before 3 months. Conclusion: This study suggests that for good respiratory and cardiovascular function regular physical activity should be part of daily routine. By the habit of doing exercise physiological, physical and mental wellbeing of individual and better quality of life can be achieved. [A R Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):19-21]</p> Dr. Rajendra Atmaram Amin Dr. Rahil Shah Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 19 21 Role Of Lateral Sole Raise In The Management Of Primary Osteoarthritis Of Knee - A Clinical Study http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2854 <p>Background: Primary osteoarthritis of knee joint is a frequent disorder usually affecting the patients after 5th decade. Medial compartment of knee is most commonly affected leading to physical impairment in the form of knee pain, stiffness, swelling and alteration of gait in the advanced disease. Aim of this study was to study the role of Lateral sole raise as a conservative treatment modality for patients with degenerative OA of knee. Material And Methods: Study included 60 patients with stage I and II O. A. (Kellgren &amp; Lawrance Radiological classification of Osteoarthirits) knee over 60 yrs. of age, randomly distributed in two groups. Control group has received conventional treatment in the form of physiotherapy with NSAID’s while Study group received lateral sole raise in footwear of 2 cm in addition to Physiotherapy. Two group evaluated by Lysholm Knee rating scale &amp; Tibiofemoral angle at initial presentation (T0), after six months (T1) and after one year (T2) respectively. Result: It shows that mean of difference in Lysholm Knee rating scale between T0- T1&amp; T0- T2 of control group &amp; study group is significant while mean of difference in Tibiofemoral angle between T0- T1&amp; T0- T2 of study group is significant except T0- T1 in study group is insignificant. Conclusion: Significant results were obtained in lateral sole raise group. Outer sole raise creates a favourable environment for healing of medial knee compartment articular cartilage due to improved biomechanics thereby leading to improvements in pain, gait and also in knee scoring. It seems that the wedged insole exerts no effect in patients with advanced degenerative changes therefore advanced osteoarthritis is not an indication for this method of treatment. These results led to the conclusion that treatment with a wedged insole was effective in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee. Out of all the modalities lateral sole raise seems to be the convenient, cost effective, non invasive and well suited to Indian population. [Khan A Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):22-26]</p> Dr. Abdul Qayyum Khan Dr. Gul Ar Navi Khan Dr. Mohd. Sharique Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 22 26 Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In The Evaluation Of Salivary Gland Swelling http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2855 <p>Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is accurate, simple, quick and cost-effective procedure with minimal risk of complications. FNAC has been utilized as an excellent primary method of evaluating lesions of the salivary glands. Salivary gland tumors are rare and account for only 2-6.5 % of all the head and neck tumors, with approximately 64-80% occurring in the parotid glands. Material And Methods: An observational study was done on salivary gland lesions received from various departments over a period of one and half years (June 2016 to October 2019) at the pathology Department of AMC MET Medical College, L.G. Hospital, Maninagar, Ahmedabad. The observations were analyzed, classified and compared with other studies using appropriate statistical tests. Results: A total of 103 patients were accumulated, of which majority of patients were in the age group of 20-29 years (n=24, 23.3%) with slight male preponderance (M:F = 1.34). Parotid glands were maximally involved (n=52, 50.49%). Majority of the lesions belonged to the neoplastic category (n=66, 64.08%) and benign neoplastic lesions (n=56, 54.37%) were more common than malignant lesions. Neoplastic lesions showed Pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin’s tumor and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma as commonest lesions. Amongst the inflammatory lesions (n=26,25.24%), chronic sialadenitis (n=17, 16.50%) was the most common pathology. Conclusion: Salivary gland lesions are fairly common in occurrence and are amenable to FNAC analysis without any significant complications. Since FNAC is a low-cost procedure, it is preferred as the initial choice of investigation for salivary gland lesions. Neoplastic lesions were the most common variety of salivary gland swelling, with pleomorphic adenoma being the most common subtype.[Shah F Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):27-32]</p> Dr. Falguni Shah Dr. Grishma S Thaker Dr. Jayshree Shah Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 27 32 A Comparative Study Between Scapular Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation With Conventional Therapy And Conventional Therapy Alone, On Non Specific Neck Pain, Posture And Function http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2868 <p>Background: In an estimated 50–80% of cases involving back or neck pain, an underlying pathology cannot be determined. One of the factors that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neck pain is scapular function. Various studies correlate scapular dysfunction with a decrease in cranio-vertebral angle, i.e., forward head posture. Aim &amp; Objectives: Our study aimed to compare between scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with conventional therapy and conventional therapy alone on non-specific neck pain intensity using the Visual Analogue Scale, head – neck posture (Craniovertebral angle)using a modified goniometer, scapular posture using a modification of the Lateral Scapular Slide Test, and function using the Neck Pain and Disability Scale. Material And Methods: 60 patients with non specific neck pain and scapular dysfunction on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test were included. They were allocated into two separate groups. Treatment in both groups was given every alternate day for 4 weeks. A home exercise program was prescribed to be performed twice a day. Result: Results showed significant improvement in pain intensity, head-neck posture, scapular posture, and function in both groups. However, when compared, scapular PNF, along with conventional therapy, demonstrated significantly better results than conventional therapy alone in all parameters, which were satisfied at 95% CI with significance 0.05. Conclusion: This implies the need for identification and treatment of scapular dysfunction in neck pain patients. [M M Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):33-41]</p> Master Mahaziver F Naik Rajashree V Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 33 41 A Study Of Relation Of C- Reactive Protein With Hemoglobin, Platelet Count, Creatinine And Bilirubin Levels In Patients Of Malaria http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2856 <p>Background: The burden of malaria warrants need of predicting severity of malaria early. CRP is a known acute phase reactant. Objectives: To find out if there is any correlation between CRP at the time of presentation with later complications in malaria. Material And Methods: This was an observational study. All patients ≥ 18 years with confirmed diagnosis of malaria were included. The data was analysed correlation of CRP at presentation with hemoglobin, platelet count, liver enzymes or creatinine levels. Result: Total 80 patients were included. There was positive correlation of CRP with T. bilirubin, SGPT, s.creatinine and blood urea (r = 0.21, 0.26, 0.51 and 0.44 respectively) while there was negative correlation of CRP with Hb and platelet count (r = -0.26, -0.56). A statistically significant difference was observed in values of haemoglobin, platelet count and serum creatinine between the two groups with CRP &gt; 6 mg/l and CRP &lt; 6mg/l. Conclusion: CRP at presentation in cases of malaria is positively correlated with s. bilirubin, liver enzymes and s creatinine and negatively correlated with hemoglobin and platelet counts. CRP should be tested in all malaria patients to identify patients requiring aggressive treatment to prevent serious complications of malaria and improve prognosis. [Kanojiya S Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):42-46]</p> Dr. Swarup Kanojiya Dr. Arti P Muley Dr. Sourabha Saravu Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 42 46 Comparison of Effectiveness of KT And Athletic Massage On Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness [DOMS] In Quadriceps Of Normal Healthy Individuals http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2857 <p>Background: Almost every individual who performs unaccustomed eccentric exercise experiences Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness [DOMS].The current study compared the effectiveness of KT and athletic massage on induced DOMS in quadriceps muscle of normal healthy individuals. Objectives: 1] To assess the efficacy of KT + Athletic massage when compared to athletic massage alone in terms of Quadriceps strength and Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) measured 48 hours post intervention. 2] To compare-the change in perceived soreness 48 hours post intervention-between the two groups. Material and Methods: 20 individuals (7 males, 13 females, mean age 22 ± 2.24 in control group and 22± 1.84 in experimental group) were included. DOMS was induced with deep squats performed until moderate soreness was perceived. The experimental group received athletic massage with KT. The control group received athletic massage only. The effects were compared 48 hours post intervention using surface EMG and dynamometry. Result: Perceived soreness reduced significantly (p=0.026, using t-test) in the experimental group. No significant effect on MVIC and strength in both the experimental and control group (using one-way ANOVA). Conclusion: 1] The KT + Athletic (experimental group) intervention showed no effect on the Quadriceps strength and MVIC measured 48 hours post intervention. The athletic massage group (control group) showed a decrease in Quadriceps strength measured 48 hours post intervention and no effect on MVIC measured 48 hours post-intervention. 2] KT and athletic massage used in combination reduced perceived soreness measured 48 hours post intervention when compared with athletic massage alone. Clinical implication: As DOMS affects one’s performance in sports and exercise, its treatment will help attain optimal performance during these activities. [Chiddarwar V Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):47-54]</p> Dr. Vaishnavi C Dr. Ajit D Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 47 54 Anthropometric Assessment Of Fast Bowlers And Its Correlation With Throwing Performance http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2858 <p>Background: Anthropometric characteristics (AC) have revealed correlation between body structure physical characteristics and sport capabilities. The purpose of this study was to find the correlation between the AC &amp; throwing performance (TP) in fast bowlers (FB) &amp; to predict if specific variables in AC affect TP. Objectives: To determine AC in FB, Assess TP in fast bowlers, to correlate the AC with the TP and to predict if the AC affects the TP. Material And Methods: 50 FB with Mean age of 23 ±3.11 years &amp; 9±4.33 years of playing experience were evaluated on AC like Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Fat%, BMI, Linear and Girth measurements of upper &amp; lower limb, Skinfold measurements, Back strength (BS) and TP. Result: Ht (p ≤ 0.030) and BS (p ≤ 0.045) show a positive significant correlation. BMI, Fat%, Biceps, Triceps, Subscapular, Supraspinale, Abdomen, Thigh, Mid-Calf, thigh girth, calf girth show negative significant correlation with the TP of fast bowlers. The total r2 value of all the anthropometric variables is 75% of variance with the TP in fast bowlers. Conclusion: Ht shows positive correlation whereas BMI, Fat %, Lean body mass, Skinfold measurement, Thigh, calf girth shows negative correlation in fast bowlers performance. There is 75% of variance with the Throwing performance in fast bowlers with regards to the parameters mentioned above. [Dabholkar A Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):55-60]</p> Dr. Ajit Dabholkar Dr. Bhavi Ghelani Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 55 60 Evaluation of Radiographic Waste Management in Dental Clinics of Vadodara City http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2859 <p>Background: Many Advanced Dental Radiographic imaging techniques are currently available to obtain images free of radiographic solutions like Radiovisiography. But still majority of dentists in India are dependent on conventional film based radiography due to high expenses. The aim of the study was to evaluate the management of radiographic wastes resulting from conventional intraoral radiography in dental clinics of Vadodara City. Material And Methods: Dentists registered with DCI &amp; who are practicing in Vadodara city, were voluntary participants of the study. Each participant was asked to fill a questionnaire. The collected data was entered in the master chart &amp; was subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Out of 376 dental clinics in the Vadodara city, only 182 are using conventional radiography and amongst them only 150 participants were willing to participate in the study. A total of 95.3% of the participants believed that radiographic waste materials could cause damage to the environment. Regarding the disposal of used fixer, developer solution; 86% affirmed that they threw the solution directly through the sink, 14% diluted it in water and threw it into the sink. Not a single participant is using specialized company for disposal of used processing solution. Considering the discarding of the packing of the radiographic films, 100% threw them into the garbage. Conclusion: The practicing dentists had knowledge about harmful effects of radiographic waste on environment but it did not reflect in their way of management. Their incorrect disposal &amp; management are of great concern &amp; the government agencies should supervise such actions to protect both the health &amp; the environment. [Patel P Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):61-65]</p> Dr. Pranay Patel Dr. Rashmi Venkatesh Dr. Ruchita Peter Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 61 65 Is Occurrence Of Sick Building Syndrome A Possibility In The Dissection Hall? http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2860 <p>“Sick building syndrome” (SBS) refers to a condition where people working in a building experience a constellation of non-specific mucosal, skin, and general symptoms that are temporally related to their occupancy in the particular building and which usually disappear once the duration of work is over and they leave the confines of the building. Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound which has been substantially implicated in its genesis in numerous studies. The gross anatomy dissection hall in medical colleges provides a space where there is considerable amount of formaldehyde emission from the formalin-embalmed cadavers. Added to this are factors such as crowding, humidity and psychosocial demands of the new lifestyle. The present article intends to review the current understanding of this entity and provide insight into whether it is possible that medical students, teachers and staff could actually be suffering from sick building syndrome in the time spent in the dissection hall.[D D Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):66-71]</p> Dr. Dipak Kumar Dhar Dr. Ritik Arora Dr. Sudeepa Chaudhuri Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 66 71 Faculty Development Program In India: Identifying Gaps And Opportunities For Reforms http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2861 <p>Faculty Development Programs in India can be traced from NTTC till National Faculty Development program of MCI being implemented since 2009 which is a mandatory workshop. But there is a gap between the Faculty Development Programs and its impact on medical teacher’s behaviour at their workplace. Utility of the Faculty Development Program in terms of transfer of knowledge and in generating evidences about the Medical education process is not well established because evaluation of Faculty Development Programs for their impact analysis is not well studied. This manuscript highlights the importance of evaluation of utility and the impact of Faculty Development Programs on the personal and institutional growth. First and foremost there is a need for timely intervention to evaluate the effectiveness &amp; impact of the Faculty Development Programs Operational utilization of the evidence based outcome towards suitable and appropriate policy intervention should be found out to make the faculty development programme well focused and well directed to the relevant needs, concerns and challenges of need to restructure the Faculty Development Program for its content. A hypothesis for the evaluation of the impact &amp; effectiveness of the Faculty Development Program for its Upgradation &amp; strengthening should be generated. [Gade S Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):72-78]</p> Dr. Shubhada Gade Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 72 78 Rationale for Infection Control and Its Applicability in Dental Clinics - An Overview http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2862 <p>Infection control measures and procedures play a primary role in controlling the spread of the infectious diseases in a health care setting. Therefore, the aim and objective of this article is to throw light on the importance of Infection control and various steps taken which help in the process of infection control. Dentistry is a field wherein there is high risks of exposure to saliva/blood and other potentially infectious materials, and therefore, mandates a high standard of infection control and safety in suppressing cross-contamination and occupational exposures to blood- and saliva-borne diseases. Dental care professionals are at a higher risk of cross infections while treating patients so it is the duty of the clinician to keep himself updated and educate and vaccinate the personnel working under him.<br>[Verma K Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):79-83]</p> Dr. Kavita Verma Dr. Shrish Charan Sivastava Dr. Kailash Attur Dr. Ajay Kubavat Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 79 83 Correction Of Gummy Smile Due To Altered Passive Eruption: Lip Repositioning And Internal Bevel Gingivectomy - A Case Report http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2863 <p>A gummy smile can occur due to: a short upper lip, excessive wear of the teeth due to grinding, vertical maxillary excess or altered passive eruption. Altered passive eruption results in a large portion of the anatomic crown remains covered by the gingiva resulting in a squarish tooth shape. Aim &amp; Objectives: The case report aims to demonstrate the use of perioplastic surgical modalities like lip repositioning along with gingivectomy to treat gummy smile due to altered passive eruption. Inference: These perioplastic procedures lead to predictable outcomes in the treatment of altered passive eruption /gummy smile. Clinical Significance: A careful preoperative planning is required for the postsurgical stability of gingival margins. [Sharma A Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):84-87]</p> Dr. Aakriti Sharma Dr. Sanjeev Sharma Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 84 87 Retreatment Of Endodontically Failed Tooth With Open Apex Using A Matrix Concept - Case Reports http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2864 <p>An immature tooth with non-vital pulp and periapical pathology imposes a great difficulty to the endodontist. The primary reason for endodontic failure is the persistence of re growth of bacteria within the root canal system and such cases requires retreatment. Endodontic treatment options for such teeth consist of retreatment with conventional apexification procedure with and without apical barriers with the objective of eliminating bacteria from the root canal system with minimum irritation to the periapical tissues and induction of apical closure to produce favourable conditions and to confine the root canal fillings within the canal space. Traditionally, multiple dressings of calcium hydroxide medicament were placed to induce apical barrier formation. This case series describes two clinical cases with open apex and poorly treated root canals which were subjected to apexification procedure using different materials and techniques. The materials used here varied from Biodentine with platelet-rich fibrin (matrix) and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with hydroxyapatite (matrix). Conclusion: Both the cases were successful regarding the resolution of symptoms and periapical healing. No matter what barrier is used or matrix is placed or not, healing takes place if the procedure is followed carefully using recommended protocols. [Kubavat R Natl J Integr Res Med, 2019; 10(6):88-93]</p> Dr. Radhika Kubavat Dr. Kiran Vachhani Dr. Kamal Bagda Dr. Kailash Attur Dr. Dhruvin Desai Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 88 93 Cleidocranial Dysplasia With Dens Invaginatus: A Report Of Two Cases http://nicpd.ac.in/ojs-/index.php/njirm/article/view/2865 <p>Background: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant malformation syndrome affecting bones and teeth. It has been demonstrated that mutation of the RUNX2 gene which controls osteoblastic differentiation, appropriate osteogenesis and odontogenesis via participation in odontoblast differentiation, enamel organ formation and dental lamina proliferation is responsible for CCD. The dental abnormalities associated with CCD are often the reason for diagnosis in mildly affected individuals. Here we present two cases of cleidocranial dysplasia with radiographic analysis, both presenting with a rare dental anomaly; dens invaginatus. [Parikh S Natl J Integr Res Med, 2020; 11(4):94-98]</p> Dr. Shilpa J. Parikh Dr. Monali N. Prajapati Dr. Annu D. Verma Dr. Jigna S. Shah Copyright (c) 2020-09-01 2020-09-01 11 4 94 98